Spain Vs Netherland: The Ultimate Game

Two teams with relatively different on playing characters; Spain with an impressive passing game, and the Netherlands with an explosive attack, will meet for the first time world champion. Both are countries with tremendous football tradition, has produced many stars in every generation, and has a respectable clubs in Europe. But never be a World Cup winner.

The Netherlands has twice reached the World Cup final, which was in 1974 and 1978, and was defeated by the host. Spain has always come to the World Cup with a collection of talented players, but only now can reach the final. For half a century, the status of Spain is underachiever. And the Dutch Difficult to restore golden era of total football. Holland showed his strength when beat Uruguay 3-2. Spain demonstrate the most impressive passing game while making Germany was helpless, and beat him 1-0.

Coach Bert van Marwijk openly admit the quality of the Spain game, and said that La Furia Roja is the best on earth at this time. Spain impressed with the performance of the Netherlands, who won consecutively in 14 games, starting from the qualification, friendship, until the World Cup semi-final. Spain started the World Cup with a 1-0 defeat of Switzerland. The defeat was the second time in 53 last games. Van Marwijk said he was not interested in seeing his team's record and Spanish. He also did not care what the world said, about who the most favored. "What we think about is how we play our style, and wait on the Spanish game," he said. Spain and the Netherlands are rarely met in a tournament. The last meeting occurred both November 1983, at the Euro 1984 qualifier in Rotterdam. The Netherlands won 2-1 through goals Ruud Gullit.

The Dutch will go down with his best squad. Gregory van der Wiel and Nigel de Jong, who absent against Uruguay in the semifinals, has been able to be a starter. In the stronghold of Spain's Fernando Torres is no longer a threat, but David Villa has the potential to make a third final defeat. Andres Iniesta is predicted to make the back of the Dutch defense apart.

Although able to play quickly with short passes, and excellent ball control, Spain is not used to playing open. Germans really know what to do to deal with Spain. They apply the counter-attacking play, but could not work.

The Netherlands is likely to play a quick counterattack, with long passes, but they must first paralyze the Spanish midfield in order not to suffer the same as Germany. Orange team has experience dealing with the short pass, like when it against Mexico, and they can cope with long passes.

Vicente del Bosque said he would not play like when facing Germany. He knew the Dutch had been preparing for its anticipation. "The Netherlands is a country with great football tradition. They want to finish the long awaited of World Cup trophy," said Del Bosque. "We must find other ways to deal with it," said Del Bosque.

19-06-2010 Netherlands 1-0 Japan
25-06-2010 Cameroon 1-2 Netherlands
28-06-2010 Netherlands 2-1 Slovakia
02-07-2010 Netherlands 2-1 Brazil
07-07-2010 Uruguay 2-3 Netherlands

22-06-2010 Spain 2-0 Honduras
26-06-2010 Chile 1-2 Spain
30-06-2010 Spain 1-0 Portugal
04-07-2010 Paraguay 0-1 Spain
08-07-2010 Germany 0-1 Spain

The Dutch situation
Bert van Marwijk squad perfectly healthy. Although a number of Oranje star break last Friday practice, Van Marwijk did not hesitate to play them all in this ultimate game. Goalkeeper Maarten Stekelenburg has problems with his hip, but he's a normal practice. Demy de Zeeuw, who had a problem with her teeth, do not complain anymore. But De Zeeuw and Khalid Boulahrouz will sit on the bench, because Gregory van der Wiel and Nigel de Jong came back from the penalty. The composition of Players prediction: Stekelenburg; Van der Wiel, Heitinga, Mathijsen, Van Bronckhorst, Van Bommel, De Jong, Robben, Sneijder, Kuyt, Van Persie

Spanish Situation
Like his counterpart in the Dutch camp, Vicente del Bosque will also play all of its core players. Fernando Torres likely sit on the bench, especially after Pedro looked impressive in the semi final. Spain requires Raul Albiol in this fight, but the defender could not compete. The World Cup was over for him since long ago.

The prediction of Players composition : Casillas, Ramos, Pique, Puyol, Capdevila; Busquets, Alonso, Pedro, Xavi, Iniesta, Villa

The players must be Observed

Wesley Sneijder:
Iker Casillas has warned his colleagues to not only focus on Arjen Robben. According to him, Wesley Sneijder is more dangerous, and being in the top of his game throughout this year. Sergui Busquets likely to escort him. But Sneijder certainly be able to overcome the difficulties in midfield.

In the semifinals, David Villa into oblivion because the figures did not score a goal. Pedro came to the surface, and the center of attention. In this fight, Villa is likely to heavily guarded Dutch defender. At that time, Padro will be a serious threat behind the Orange line. Pedro was 22 years old, has good technique, and kick hard.

Castrol World Cup Match Predictor sure chance Spain won the match 57 percent. But if Holland play like when defeating Mexico in a friendly match, Spain will be difficult. Netherlands should not give up when Spain plays Possession football in midfield. The Dutch seem to have learned a lot from Spain-Germany match.

Ten Facts about Paul the Octopus Seer

Paul known for it accurate predictions for the 2010 World Cup in South Africa. However, not many people know who Paul really is. Here are ten facts about the octopus that was two years old as reported by the Telegraph.
  1. British-born male octopus
    Although now living in the Aquarium Sea Life Centre, Oberhausen, Germany, Paul was born in Weymouth, England, and moved from the Weymouth Sea Life Park (to Germany). A staff at Weymouth Sea Life Park, Fiona Smith, who had been taking care of Paul saying, "He never made any predictions when it's still here. However, maybe he was waiting for a big tournament like the World Cup to show that ability."
  2. Humans hunted
    An Argentine chef, Nicolas Bedorrou, so angry when Paul accurately predicted that his country teams will be defeated by Germany in the quarter-finals of World Cup 2010 South Africa. He even threaten to hunt Paul to be cooked. "We will chase and place it on paper. We will then beat it to make the soft meat and then put it in boiling water, "said Bedorrou.
  3. Great news
    Prediction Paul has invited the attention of many people because a German television station, NTV, often broadcast Paul prediction directly with two reporters standing next to the Aquarium so they can make the audience know how Paul make predictions.
  4. The biggest celeb in Oberhausen
    Paul is the most popular thing in Oberhausen, a city, which according to Wikipedia, an area of 77 square kilometers and a population of 214 000 people. During this time, the city was only known for having the largest shopping centers in Germany, the Centro.
  5. An almost perfect prediction accuracy
    Paul began to predict the outcome of the game since Euro 2008 Switzerland-Austria and it was predicting six games of Germany, with four of them right. He said Germany would win all the matches. In fact, Germany lost to Croatia. At the 2010 World Cup in South Africa, so far, all of Paul's prophecy about the German right, including about they will lose to Spain in the semifinal.
  6. Can make you rich
    With forecasts like that, you can rely on it predictions before betting.
  7. Intelligent animals
    Octopus are intelligent animals and proved to have a strong memory. "Octopus like Paul is very intelligent. their intelligence similar to the dog intelligence, they love the problem and like to solve problems, "said Fiona Smith.
  8. Celebrities on Facebook and Twitter
    Paul became one of the most prevalent topic of conversation at social networking site. The phrase "Paul the Octopus" and "Pulpo" (Spanish for octopus) entered Twitter top ten.
  9. Without trick
    Paul predict the outcome of the game with the lid off one of two containers of food in the aquarium. Sea Life Centre Oberhausen Staff, Tanja Munzig, denied allegations that something was placed in one container. "There's no trick. Same food and everything in the two containers are the same, except the flag, "said Munzig.
  10. Not afraid of death threats
    According to his supervisor, Oliver Walencak, Paul was not afraid of threats of supporters who blamed him for exclusion of Not afraid of death threats
    According to his supervisor, Oliver Walencak, Paul was not afraid of threats of Argentine supporters who blamed him for exclusion of Lionel Messi and colleagues from the World Cup in 2010 because the 0-4 defeat of Germany.

Do You Know: Giovanni van Bronckhorst, the Captain of Dutch National Team, is a Descendant of Indonesia?

The Netherlands qualified for the World Cup final in 2010, is not only a joy for Dutch citizens. Indonesia indirectly also feel pride in the passage of the Orange team to a World Cup Final in 2010.

What causes it? It's not a secret anymore, if the Dutch national team player several times filled by the descendants of Indonesia (Ambon). Starting from Tahamata Simon, a former Dutch national team players with 22 caps is the birth of Maluku, a region in Indonesia, until Giovanni van Bronckhorst in the World Cup in 2010. Moreover, they are the main pillars in the Orange team, just look at the Dutch captain at the World Cup in 2010, Giovanni van Bronckhorst.

Giovanni Christiaan van Bronckhorst (called Gio (pronounced "jo", born in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, May 5, 1975, age 35 years) was a soccer player from Holland. Since 2003 he played in Feyenoord Rotterdam in the Eredivisie. It is usually given a position as midfielder or defender.

He strengthened the Netherlands on various international ranking tournament since the FIFA World Cup 1998 FIFA World Cup until 2010. On this last coach he trusted as a captain.

Bronckhorst was one of several Dutch national team player who has a descendants of Indonesia. His father is an Indo Bronckhorst while his mother came from Saparua, Maluku. One thing that is unique, even if Gio was born and has long been settled in the Netherlands, he could still communicate by using Indonesian with a thick accent of East Indonesia and distinctive, although he did not really have mastered all the vocabulary in Indonesian. He claimed to have that ability from his mother's original Maluku.

As a defender Giovanni van Bronckhorts rarely scored. Among those few, one of which is gorgeous goal nested in Uruguay yesterday morning. Who would have thought, that's the goal and then open the way for the Dutch victory.

By the age of 35 years, Van Bronckhorst's career was no longer long. Therefore, he chose the party's 2010 World Cup final as the last game as the Orange team. Defender who has 14 years defended the Dutch national team decided retiring after from the World Cup this time.

"Hopefully the final will be the most beautiful game in my life," said Van Bronckhorst, as quoted by the Associated Press. 'Last game in my international career was the World Cup final. Nothing is more fun than that, "continued the player's Feyenoord Rotterdam.

Career Van Bronckhorst was almost over after Euro 2008. However, coach Bert van Marwijk still give him chance. In fact, as the most senior age, Van Bronkhorst appointed as captain to replace goalkeeper Edwin van der Sar, who retired from the national team.

Gio has 14 years with the national team. He made his debut when defended the Dutch against Brazil on August 31, 1996. Gio has passed 105 party with De Oranje. Still far from the record attached to Edwin van der Sar. But for Gio, it does not become important as the pride of the country already swelled.

Apparently, at the end of his career, Van Bronckhorst bring the Netherlands to the most grandiose world's competition. For players who original position at left-back, goals against Uruguay yesterday is very special. his hard kick touching the left goalpost before rolling hit the nets. He admitted that he was still celebrating the success of the Dutch entered into the final hour after the game ended.

Beside van Bronckhorst, there's more players Indonesian descent in the current Dutch national team, like John Heitinga, Robin Van Persie, Demy De Zeeuw and Nigel de Jong. Van Persie is a mainstay of Dutch front lines in South Africa and has 49 caps for the national team, is said to have Indonesian blood from his grandmother, while De Jong cited Dutch descent, Maluku and Suriname.

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The Biological Perspective: Nervous System Functioning and Biochemistry

Much of both early and current thinking about the role of biological influences on disordered behavior implicates imbalances in body chemistry. Hippocrates speculated that adequate mental functioning relied on a proper balance of the four bodily humors: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. Thus, for example, excessive black bile was thought to produce melancholia, or what we would today label depression.
While specific mechanisms for specific disorders are often questioned, there is fairly broad agreement that biochemistry in some form contributes to disturbed behavior. The biochemistry of neurotransmitters and central nervous system functioning have become important foci of biology's contribution to the study of behavior disorders.
The nervous system has billions of neurons, which conduct the electrochemical impulses by which communication occurs Neurons have three major parts: a cell body, dendrites which branch out from the cell body and can receive messages from other cells, and axons which transmit messages to other cells. These messages must cross the gap between neurons (the synaptic gap or cleft). When an impulse reaches the end of the-axon, neurotransmitters are released that cross the synaptic gap and communicate with another cell through receptor sites on that cell.
Neurotransmission can go awry in a number of ways. For example, too much or too little of a particular neurotransmitter can be released. Problems can also exist in reuptake--the process by which the neuron reabsorbs the neurotransmitter for subsequent transmissions. Also, the density and sensitivity of receptors to a particular neurotransmitter or the presence or absence of other chemicals, known as blocking agents, at the receptor sites can affect neurotransmission. A number of different neurotransmitters have been identified as playing a role in various forms of abnormal behavior such as depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (cf. Emslie et al., 1994; Pliszka et al., 1994). Norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine, and gamma amibutyric acid (GABA) are some of the major neurotransmitters that have been studied. The role of neurotransmitters is described in later chapters on various disorders.
How the biochemistry of the body, not only the brain, reacts to situations an individual may encounter is also part of the biological perspective on behavior disorders. The autonomic nervous system helps to regulate one's emotional state. It consists of two branches. The sympathetic nervous system mediates increased arousal, preparing the body for action. The parasympathetic nervous system, on the other hand, works to slow arousal and conserve the body's resources. One of the ways the autonomic nervous system operates is through stimulation of the endocrine system, a collection of glands that release hormones into the bloodstream. Research on neuroendocrine functioning is an important part of the study of a variety of child and adolescent disorders. For example, differences in autonomic reactivity in panic disorder, neurohormonal dysregulation in obsessive-compulsive disorder, and the role of growth hormone regulation in depression have received attention (cf. Dummit and Klein, i994; Emslie et al., 1994; Leonard et al., 1994). These and other biochemical influences will be discussed in later chapters.

Genetic Influences
The study of genetic influences on human behavior is extremely complex and cur-rently expanding in several directions (Lombroso, Pauls, and Leckman, 1994; Plomin, 1994a; Rutter et al., 1990a). Application to child and adolescent disorders is comparatively under-researched, but this is changing. Genetic research can tell us subtle things about etiology, for example, whether all or only some cases of a disorder are likely to have a genetic component. Genetic research can even confirm the role of environment in causation and point to characteristics of the environment that might be especially important (Plomin, 1994b).
A complete discussion of genetic influence on childhood disorders is not possible here. The topics selected for examination are intended to introduce this area and to facilitate understanding of later discussions of the genetics of specific behavior disorders.
Inheritance through single genes. Beginning with the work of Gregor Mendel, scientists have sought to describe inheritance of certain characteristics controlled by one gene pair. Mendel correctly hypothesized that each parent carries two hereditary factors (later called genes), but passes on only one to the offspring. He also noted that one form of the factor is dominant, in that its transmission by either parent leads to the display of that form of the characteristic. The other form, the recessive, displays itself only when it is transmitted by both parents. Both of these patterns, and the sex-linked pattern described below, are involved in the inheritance of many human attributes and disorders.
Huntington's chorea is an example of a disease transmitted by a dominant gene. This disease causes death, but does not show up until adulthood, when limb spasms, and mental deterioration and perhaps dementia become evident. Many people know of this inherited disease due to the death by it of Woody Guthrie, a well-known folk singer and father of Arlo Guthrie.
Tay-Sachs disease provides an example of a disorder carried by one gene pair and transmitted recessively. A degenerative disease of the nervous system, it usually results in progressive deterioration of mental abilities, motor capacities, and vision, and then death by the age of one to three. An estimated 60 to 90 percent of all cases of Tay Sachs is found among children of Ashkenazic Jewish heritage.
The sex-linked pattern of inheritance involves genes on the sex chromosomes. O special interest is the situation in which the relevant gene is recessive and carried on the X chromosome, such as in red-green color blindness, hemophilia, and Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome. The latter is a rare, untreatable disorder that results in unusual motor development, mental retardation, and extreme self -mutilation in children. The disorder is found only in males, who die early and thus do not have offspring. The Lesch Nyhan child has a normal father and a mother who carries the disorder, having one normal X chromosome and one affected X chromosome. Sons receive their only X chromosome from their mothers. Those who receive the recessive defective gene will develop the disorder, since the Y chromosome transmitted from the father carries no gene at all to offset the defective gene. Daughters receive one X chromosome from each parent. If a girl receives the defective recessive gene from her mother, it is usually offset by the dominant normal gene from her father; she has no affliction herself but could transmit Lesch-Nyhan to her son.
Researchers continue to explore the effects of single gene pairs or other relatively simple genetic etiology on specific behavior disorders. Such research has been facilitated by new genetic methods (cf. Lombroso et al., 1994). Segregation analysis uses statistical procedures to examine the pattern of disorder as well as genetic makeup within a family and compare it to a specific genetic model of inheritance, such as a dominant or recessive gene model. The results allow inferences about the pattern of genetic inheritance for a disorder. Linkage analysis explores whether the pattern in which a specific disorder appears among family members is the same as for genetic markers. The approximate chromosome location is known for the genetic markers. For example, inherited disorders, such as color blindness, that are known to be linked to a particular chromosome have been used as markers. If the behavior disorder and color blindness appear in family members in the same pattern then it can be presumed that the genes that control them are close neighbors on the same chromosome. Advances in molecular genetics have also identified a large group of DNA fragments (called restriction fragment length polymorphisms and variable tandem repeats) for which chromosomal location is known. These fragments can serve as genetic markers for linkage analysis in the same way as indicted for color blindness.
The efforts of Nancy Wexler and a team of research scientists in searching for the gene responsible for Huntington's disease is an example of recent advances. Through the use of linkage analysis techniques the disorder had been mapped to an area on chromosome 4 and recently Wexler's group was able to identify the gene responsible for Huntington's disease (Huntington's Disease Collaborative Research Group, 1993).
Investigating the effects of multiple genes. In contrast to the effects due to a single gene pair, most of the behaviors we are concerned with in studying child and adolescent behavior disorders are thought to involve many genes as well as environmental influences. Such multifactorial inheritance is much more difficult to trace than single gene effects. Accordingly, the study of genetic influences on human behavior relies on a combination of evidence from a variety of research methods. We will now look briefly at the major research methods of behavior genetics.
Youth with behavior disorders often have parents, siblings, and other family members with similar problems. However, such aggregation of behavior problems in families does not mean a genetic influence is operating. Family environment may also be operating. One of the goals of research is thus to determine the degree of genetic influence operating in specific behavior disorders.
The three major research strategies of behavior genetics that have been applied to, behavior disorders are the twin, family, and adoption methodologies (Plomin, 1994b). These methods are employed to assess heritability, a statistic that indicates the degree to which genetic influence accounts for variance in behavior among individuals in the population studied. Importantly, the contribution of environmental influences is also obtained.
The essence of twin designs is a comparison of identical twin resemblance (concordance) to fraternal twin resemblance. Identical or monozygotic (MZ) twins have identical genes. Fraternal or dizygotic (DZ) twins are on average only 50 percent alike genetically; in fact, they are no more alike genetically than any two siblings. In its most basic form, the twin method points to genetic influence if there is greater concordance among identical twins than among fraternal twins. That is, genetic influence is suggested when a disorder occurs more frequently in both members of MZ twin pairs than it does in both members of DZ twin pairs (cf. Edelbrock et al., 1995).
Family studies expand upon the logic of twin studies. The relatives of an individual identified as exhibiting a certain behavior or disorder (the proband) can be examined to determine whether or not the relatives exhibit the same behavior or problem. Identical twins are 100 percent genetically related. First-degree relatives' (parents and their offspring and siblings) average genetic relatedness is 50 percent. Half-siblings and other second-degree relatives are 25 percent genetically related. Third-degree relatives, such as cousins, are only 12.5 percent genetically related. If there is a genetic influence on a disorder, family members who are genetically more similar to the proband should be more likely to exhibit the same or related difficulties. Statistical estimates of heritability are possible.
Adoption studies are designed to evaluate the relative contributions of genetics and environment by studying adopted and non adopted individuals and their families. One strategy is to start with adopted children who display a particular behavior disorder and to examine rates of that disorder in members of the children's biological families compared to rates in their adoptive families. Another strategy is to start with biological parents who exhibit a particular disorder and examine the rate of disorder in offspring separated from the parent in early childhood and raised in another household. Rates of disorder in these children can then be compared to a number of comparison groups (e.g., siblings not given for adoption and raised by the biological parent). Also associations between risk factors, such as family conflict, and behavior problems can be compared in adopted and non adopted youngsters. Adoption strategies can thus help reveal complex relations between genetic and environmental influences (cf. Braungart-Rieker et al., 1995).
All behavior genetic methods have limitations and potential confounds. For example, in adoption studies, prenatal as well as genetic factors are pan of the biological parent's "contribution." Thus, greater rates of disorder among biological relatives than adoptive relatives could be due to prenatal influences. Combinations and refinement of methods, and more sophisticated quantitative analyses, seek to address many of the shortcomings of individual methods. These advances also permit evaluation of hypothetical models of genetic transmission and of the interaction of genetic and environmental influences (Plomin, 1995; Plomin, DeFries, and McClearn, 1990; Rutter et al., 1990a).
Results from behavior genetic research suggest that heritability estimates for behavioral dimensions or disorders. rarely exceed 50 percent, and that heritability is often appreciably lower than this (Plomin, 1994b). This means that substantial variation in behavior is attributable to non genetic influences. In this way behavior genetic research has provided evidence for the importance of environmental influence. Influences of family environment that are shared by siblings and that contribute to their development can be revealed. Behavior genetic research has also highlighted the importance of environmental influences that are not shared by children growing up in the same family. These influences, known as non shared environment, make children in the same family different from one another. They are also important to the development of behavior disorders (Hetherington, Reiss, and Plomin, 1994; Plomin, Chipuer, and Neiderhiser, 1994).
Chromosome abnormalities. Approximately 40 percent of spontaneously aborted fetuses are known to have chromosomal abnormalities. Among live births it has been estimated that 3.52 infants per 1,000 are born with an abnormal number of chromosomes and 2.23 with structural abnormalities of the chromosomes (Gath, 1985).
Chromosomes that are aberrant in either number or structure are known to cause death or a variety of deficiencies. These "accidents" are often not inherited, so that they influence only the specific developing embryo. A large number of different chromosomal anomalies have been described. Mental retardation is commonly associated with many of them. Perhaps the most widely recognized disorder attributed to a chromosome aberration is Down's syndrome. Characterized by mental deficiency, it is usually caused by an extra #21 chromosome. A group of abnormalities that results from sex chromosome aberrations has also been discovered. These disorders are often characterized by below-average intelligence, atypical sexual development, and other difficulties.
Newer methods of chromosomal analysis, such as staining methods, allow detection of quite subtle abnormalities in size, shape, and other characteristics of portions of chromosomes. Also, the discovery of a group of structural features known as fragile sites has proven helpful in understanding the origins of certain disorders. For example, the fragile X anomaly is due to a fragile site on the X chromosome. This condition is thought to be responsible for many cases of severe mental retardation (Lombroso et al., 1994; Rutter et al., 1990a).

The Biological Perspective: Structure of the Brain

In previous articles we have reviewed Perspectives and modes of treatment in general, this time we will discuss more specifically based on a biological perspective
In its most general form the biological perspective holds that biology plays a central role in the development of behavioral disorders in children and adolescents. The conjecture that psychopathology is due to a defective or malfunctioning. Biological system can be traced in the Western world to Greek culture. Hippocrates (460-370 B.C.) who is considered the father of medicine, was an advocate of somatogenesis (soma refers to body, genesis means origin). He postulated that proper mental functioning relied on a healthy brain and that deviant thinking or behavior was thus the result of brain pathology.
The paradigm initially assumed that biology directly causes abnormal behavior. The original psychiatric classification system developed by Kraeplin in the late 1800s, and the forerunner of current systems, was dearly based on this assumption. Early discoveries of biological causes for particular behavioral problems (for example, the revelation that a spirochete bacterium caused syphilis and the mental deterioration of syphilis's late stages) led to the hope that similar causes would be found for all abnormal behavior. With limited exception, this has not proven to be the case.
Today a widely employed conceptualization of the role of biology is die notion of diathesis-stress--that a biological predisposition toward a disorder (a diathesis) interacts with environmental. or life events (stress) to produce a particular behavioral problem. This is a variant of the more broadly conceived notion that biological factors transact with psychological and sociocultural influences.
As we saw in previous article, influence of biological factors on a child's behavior can occur through a variety of mechanisms. Here we will examine three: the structure of the brain, the nervous system and its biochemical functioning, and genetic influences.

The Structure of the Brain
The structural integrity of the nervous system, particularly the brain, is one of the biological influences that has been examined. A cross-section of the human brain is illustrated in figure below. The brain is typically described as being divided into three major subsections: the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain.

The hindbrain, which regulates basic body functions such as sleeping, breathing, heart rate, and body movements, includes the cerebellum, pons, and medulla. The midbrain contains much of the reticular activating system, although this extends into the pons and medulla as well. The reticular activating system regulates sleep and waking. The midbrain also coordinates communication between the hindbrain and the forebrain. The forebrain consists of the two cerebral hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum. Each hemisphere has four regions or lobes. The frontal lobes are located near the front of the brain. The temporal lobes are located near the temples on the side of the brain. The parietal lobes are located near the top-rear of the brain and the occipital lobes are located at the rear of the head.
The cerebral hemispheres are involved in a wide variety of activities such a sensory processing, motor control, and higher mental functioning including information processing, learning, and memory. The thalamus and hypothalamus are structures that lie below the cerebral hemispheres, between the forebrain and midbrain. The thalamus is involved in processing and relaying information between the cerebral cortex and other parts of the central nervous system. The hypothalamus regulates basic urges such as hunger, thirst, and sexual activity. The limbic system, which is composed of parts of the cerebral hemispheres, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus, through its regulation of the endocrine glands and the autonomic nervous system (discussed below), plays a central role in the regulation of emotions and biological urges.
Actual damage to the structural or physiological integrity of the biological system may produce a variety of intellectual and behavioral difficulties. Such known or presumed influence on behavior may occur during pregnancy (prenatally). at about the time of birth (perinataly), or during later development (postnatally).

Prenatal influences. "Damage to the developing fetus by toxic substances is receiving a great deal of public and professional attention. At one time it was believed that the placenta protected the fetus from harmful substances that might enter the mother's blood stream. We now know that a variety of teratogens appear to be related to fetal death, disease, malformation, or functional/behavioral effects (Jacobson, Jacobson, and Fein, 1986). The effects of drugs such as thalidomide, alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, heroin, and methadone on prenatal development have received a great deal of study. The potential negative effects of radiation and environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are also well known. In addition many maternal diseases (e.g., rubella, syphilis, gonorrhea) are known to have harmful effects. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a growing threat to newborn babies that is of particular current concern.
Clearly many of the findings produce much controversy because they are related to sensitive economic, social, and political issues. Indeed caution is appropriate since ethical considerations do not permit research that would provide dear conclusions. such as studies in which pregnant women would be intentionally exposed to any o! these conditions. We thus must rely on animal studies, the results of which may not hold for humans, and on investigations humans under natural (uncontrolled) conditions. Interpretation of the impact of particular teratogens in such instances is difficult since exposure to any one teratogen car be associated with exposure to others, a well as to other potentially harmful effect: such as poor prenatal rare, malnutrition , and other factors associated with substance abuse and poverty (cf. Gonzalez and Campbell, 1994; Niccols, 1994). These other factors can influence outcome prenatally and during the child's subsequent development.
Since a wide variety of potential teratogens exist (Kopp and Kaler, 1989), it may not be entirely possible to avoid exposure. Indeed; as women increasingly enter the workplace they increase their risk of expo¬sure to toxic agents. However, a pregnant woman does have some control over her environment; she can take special care not toexpose herself to disease and to obtain treatment if a disease is contracted. In addition to teratogens, several other variables such as age of the mother and maternal stress have been associated with infant death and developmental difficulties (Kopp, 1994).

perinatal and later influences. It is important to note that nervous system damage may also occur during or after birth. At birth, experiences such as excessive medication given to the mother, unusual delivery, and anoxia (lack of oxygen) may result in damage to the newborn. There is evidence to suggest that the frequency of some perinatal complications is greater in lower SES children. Furthermore, as noted in previous article, perinatal complications and SES factors have an interactive effect on the infant's subsequent development (e.g., Liaw and Brooks-Gunn, 1994).
Postnatal damage may occur as a result of experiences such as accident, illness, malnutrition, or accidental poisoning. Exposure of children to lead, even at relatively low levels, is one example of accidental poisoning that has received considerable attention and would appear to have negative impact on processes such as attention and cognitive development (e.g., Fergusson, Horwood, and Lynskey, 1993; Tesman and Hills, 1994).
Regardless of when biological insult occurs, both the site and the severity of brain damage help determine the nature of the difficulties. A precise description of the relationship between damage and dysfunction cannot always be made, however. Thus, the link between brain damage and psychopathology is unclear and in many ways controversial (cf. Taylor and Fletcher, 1990).
One of the major concerns of those who work with children is whether problems arising from brain damage can be remediated. A controversial issue is whether the child's immature central nervous system is highly "plastic," that is, more likely to recover after injury, than is the adult system. The issue is a complex one (Fletcher, 1988; Huttenlocher, 1994; Thatcher, 1994). Although there is sometimes remarkable recovery of function in children that is not achieved in adults, younger age u sometimes not associated with better outcomes and age or timing of injury is only one factor affecting recovery. Size, location, and progression of the lesion, severity of the insult, secondary complications such as infection, and type and degree of environmental stimulation are some others. An emphasis on plasticity encourages efforts to develop lost or unachieved functioning, but it may have some negative consequences. Frustration for the child, parent, and teacher may result when complete plasticity is assumed but is not realized. The assumption that the young brain is highly plastic may also lead to imprecise forms of intervention. On the other hand, identification of loss and realistic expectations for recovery can lead to advances in our understanding and to improved remediation.

Perspectives And Modes Of Treatment

Here we examined developmental processes and how the developmental perspective can help us understand behavior disorders of childhood and adolescence. Within this broad developmental paradigm one can identify a number of different views. Each emphasizes some of the influences that contribute to a developmental view of behavior disorders (Achenbach, 1990). We now examine several of these “microparadigms” or perspectives that have been applied to the study of behavior disorders. Before turning to particular viewpoints, however, let us look at the meaning of the terms perspective and paradigm.

Taking Different Perspectives
Much of what we now know about behavior problems comes from applying the objective methods of science. However, the writings of Thomas Kuhn (1962) and others have made us increasingly aware that science is not a completely objective endeavor. To understand this point it is best to remember that scientists, like all of us, must think about and deal with a complex world. To do this they make assumptions and form concepts. When a set of such assumptions is shared by a group of investigators, Kuhn refers to them as a paradigm. Here we employ the terms perspective, paradigm, and view interchangeably to refer to this perceptual/cognitive "set" that the scientist takes in order to study and understand phenomena.
What are the implications of adopting a particular perspective? Perspectives help us make sense of a puzzling and complex universe. They enable us to view new information in the context of previous experience and to have a basis for reacting to it. Taking a perspective is thus adaptive and functional. At the same time, perspectives limit us as well. They guide us in "selecting" the issues chosen for investigation, but may preclude us from asking certain questions. Once a question is selected for investigation, a decision must be made: What will be observed in order to answer this question? All things are not observed, just some things. Perspectives influence this choice and also how observations are done. In turn, particular methods and instruments help in detecting certain phenomena but result in our missing others. Once information is collected, the adoption of a paradigm affects the interpretation we make of the "facts" we have collected. Overall then, perspective-taking strongly organizes how a problem is approached, investigated, and interpreted.
In the next article we will discuss some perspectives and modes of behavior disorder treatment. The perspectives are biological perspective, psychodynamic perspective, social learning perspective, cognitive perspective, family systems perspective, psychoeducational perspective. Whereas mode of treatment that we will discuss are Individual and Group Psychotherapy, Play Therapy, Parent Training, Treatment in Residential Settings, and Pharmacological Treatment.

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